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- The piece of equipment consisting of many small square meshes hung between two posts that separate the two sides of the court. Dimensions are

8.5 meters x 1 meter. For men, the net height is 2.43 meters (seven feet, 11.669 inches) high. For women, the net height is 2.24 meters (seven feet, 4.189

inches) high.


Net area

- An area immediately below the bottom of the net between the posts. It consists of the playing surface and imaginary space above it.


Normal playing conditions

- Playing conditions which are free from external interference from weather (e.g.: wind, rain). Generally based on whether

players can accurately hand set the ball.


Off hand side

- Right hand player, playing right side. The ball comes across the body on a set to hit.


Offensive player

(attacking player) - The player(s) from the team who currently have committed the last contact. The player(s) on the same side of the court

as the ball.


Olympic crossing

- A double-elimination format until the final four teams remain. At this point, the winner’s bracket final two teams cross with the

contender’s bracket final two teams.


On hand side

- Right hand player, playing left side. The ball is in front of a player on a set to hit.


Out of bounds

- The ball is out of bounds when it touches any surface, object or ground outside the court. Any part of the ball touching a boundary line or

inside the poles of the net is not out of bounds. If the ball is caught or is contacted by a player before landing out of bounds, it is not out of bounds.


Overhand finger action

- The playing action of setting the ball or passing the ball with 2 hands fingers spread, contacting the ball. It is not legal to carry

the ball with underhand finger action (i.e.: wrists inverted)


Perpendicular trajectory

- A ball that travels in a straight line from the player’s shoulders either forwards or backwards. The player’s position at the time of

first contact determines the trajectory the ball should legally follow.


Play over

- The act of putting the ball in play again without awarding a point.



- If the serving team sends a ball that is not returned or lands in the receiving team’s court, a point is an awarded to the serving team. If the receiving

team returns a ball that is not returned or lands in the serving team’s court, a point is an awarded to the receiving team.



- The time from the end of the previous match to the commencement of the next match.



- The time that the ball is legally in play, from the contact with the ball by the server, to the time of a fault by either team or when the ball hits the




(Tie ball replay) - When the referee authorizes a service to be made again with no point or side out being made to either team. This could be as a

result of simultaneous fault, incorrect decision or external interference.


Roll shot

- Legal technique using rigid, closed fingers in an overhead single hand action to complete an attack hit. Usually travels a short distance into the

opponent’s court.


Rubber booties/sand-shoes/socks

- Personal player’s equipment for protection of their feet. Usually used if sand is too hot/cold or player is injured. Requires

the referee’s permission before use.



- All players must know and abide by the “Rules of the Game.”



- The material composing the court surface. Must be flat, uniform, and safe for participants and at least 40 centimetres in depth.


Sand anchors

- The device, which secures the lines, by use of a cord, to the court, surface (50 centimetres below the ground minimum). Material must be

soft and flexible.



- The action of preventing the player(s) receiving serve from having a clear and unobstructed view of the serving player. A screen is illegal and a

screening player must move if requested to move.



- An attempt by a player to conceal the start of a teammate’s serve by obstructing an opponent’s line of sight. Screening is illegal.



- The act of putting the ball into play by a player who hits the ball with her hand or arm.


Service order

- The order in which players can legally serve. Recorded on the score sheet after the coin toss has been made. Must be maintained throughout

the match.


Service zone

- The area in which the player serves the ball. Bounded by the base (back line), the extension of the two sidelines and the outside of the free

zone (usually delimited by panels).



- Two-handed set shot used as dink or deep placement shot.


Simultaneous contact

- Contact of the ball made by two players at the same instant. This also called a joust.



- The play action of jumping and striking the ball with one hand as an attack hit.


Spiked ball

- A ball (other than a served ball) hit forcibly from a height not less than the top of the net. Also known as bury, crush, hammer, kill, put away

or slam.


Technical time out

- An official 30-second interruption to the match that occurs in sets 1 and 2 when the sum of both teams points is 21.


Three hits per side

- A team may contact the ball no more than three times before sending the ball over the net and into contact with either an opponent

or his/her court. Successive hits or contacts by the same player are illegal unless the player blocks at the net.


Time outs

- When the ball is dead, a player may request a time out. Each team will be allowed one, 30-second time out per set per team. Each time out

must be approved by the officials.



- Illegal technique using open fingers (spread fingertips) to complete an attack hit.



- The action of releasing the ball from the player’s hands in the service zone with the intention of hitting a service.


Warm up period

(Official warm up) - The time before the match officially allocated for teams to prepare on the court for the match. Commences at the

whistle (signal) of the 1 st referee after the signing of the score sheet.



- Weather condition. Strength should be low enough to enable normal playing conditions.